Law Office of Robert L. Firth
Advantages of Being in Control of the Timing of Your Bankruptcy Filing
Don’t get rushed into filing bankruptcy when the timing’s not right. Filing at the right time could save you thousands of dollars.
Timing Does Not Always Matter Much, But It CAN Be Huge
Many laws about bankruptcy are time-sensitive. And those time-sensitive laws involve the most important issues—what debts can be discharged (written off), what assets you can keep, how much you pay to certain creditors, and even whether you file a Chapter 7 case or a Chapter 13 one.
It is possible that the timing of your bankruptcy filing does not matter in your particular circumstances. But given how many of the laws are affected by timing, that’s not very likely. It’s wiser to give yourself some flexibility about when your case will be filed. If you wait until you’ve lost that flexibility—because you have to stop a creditor’s garnishment or foreclosure—you could lose out on some significant advantages.
Today’s blog post covers the first one of those potential timing advantages.
Being Able to Choose between Chapter 7 and Chapter 13
Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” and Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” are two very different methods of solving your debt problems. There are dozens and dozens of differences. You want to be able to choose between them based on what’s best for you, not because of some chance timing event.
To be able to file a Chapter 7 requires you to pass the “means test.” This test largely turns on your income. If you have too much income—more than the published median income for your family size and state—you can be disqualified from doing the get-a-fresh-start-in-four-months Chapter 7 option and be forced instead into the pay-all-you-can-afford-for-three-to-five-years Chapter 13 one.
The “Means Test” Income Calculation
What’s critical here is that income for purposes of the means test has a very special, timing-based definition. It is money that you received from virtually all sources—not just from employment or operating a business—during the six full calendar months before your case is filed, and then doubling it to come up with an annual income amount. For example, if your bankruptcy case is filed on September 30 of this year, what is considered income for this purpose is money from all sources you received precisely from March 1 through August 31 of this year. Note that if you waited to file just one day later, on October 1, then the period of pertinent income shifts a month later to April 1 through September 30.
So if you received an unusual chunk of money on March 15, that would be counted in the means test calculations if you filed anytime in September, but not if you filed anytime in October. If that chunk of money pushed you over your applicable median income amount, you may be forced to file a Chapter 13 case if your bankruptcy case is filed in September. But not if you filed in October because that particular chunk of money arrived in the month before the 6-month income period applicable if you waited to file until October.
Being able to delay filing your bankruptcy in this situation—here literally by one day from September 30 to October 1—allows you to pass the means test and therefore very likely not be forced to file a Chapter 13 case. Being in a Chapter 13 case when it doesn’t benefit you otherwise would cost you many thousands of dollars in “plan” payments made over the course of the required three to five years. Clearly, filing your case at the tactically most opportune time can be critical.
The sooner you meet with a competent attorney who can figure out these and similar kinds of considerations, the sooner you will become aware of them and the more likely problems like the one outlined here can be avoided.